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Graphene oxide modified screen-printed electrodes have been tested as amperometric sensors for morphine determination. The results demonstrate that the arising of electrocatalytic processes ascribable to the graphene coating, combined with the use of a suitable cleaning procedure, allow the sensor to achieve higher sensitivity (2.61 nA ppb−1) and lower limit of detection (2.5 ppb) with respect to those reported in the literature for similar devices.Due to very low detection limit found, the device is suitable to detect the presence of morphine in urine samples after a very simple and rapid pre-treatment of the matrix, allowing the removal of interfering species affecting the voltammetric responses. Tests performed in synthetic urine samples demonstrate that the presence of the electrocatalytic coating is mandatory in resolving the peak due to morphine oxidation in respect to uric acid. The sensor proposed is, thus …
Publication date: 
15 Feb 2019

Giulio Maccaferri, Fabio Terzi, Zhenyuan Xia, Fabio Vulcano, Andrea Liscio, Vincenzo Palermo, Chiara Zanardi

Biblio References: 
Volume: 281 Pages: 739-745
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical